Steel Building Systems Glossary of Terms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
H | I | J | K | L | M | N |
O | P | Q | R | S | T | U |
V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Accelerated Zone (Za)

Building Codes classify certain geographical areas into different “Seismic Zones” to indicate potential seismic
activity.

The Canadian Building Code requires two zone classes, Acceleration Zone and Velocity Zone. These zones are
only used with a Canadian Code. If any other Building Code is selected, these zones will be unavailable.
These zone classes are identified in the building code documentation by geographical locations. The zones range
from 1 to 6.

Seismic Zones are used to determine the potential seismic loads on the building and will affect the frame and/or Xbracing
design if seismic controls.

Refer to local Building Code Documentation for further definition of the zones and maps.

Accessory

An extra building product which supplements a basic solid sheeted building such as a door, window, skylight, ventilator, etc.

ACI – American Concrete Institute

The organization which has developed the recognized code for the design of concrete structures.

Agricultural Building

A structure designed and constructed to house hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. Such
structure shall not include habitable or occupiable spaces, spaces in which agricultural products are processed,
treated or packaged; nor shall an agricultural building be a place of occupancy by the general public.

AISI – American Iron and Steel Institute

The organization which has developed the
recognized code for the design of light gage steel members.

AISC – American Institute of Steel Construction.

AISE – Association of Iron and Steel Engineers.

Aluminized

Coated with aluminum for corrosion protection.

ANSI – American National Standards Institute.

Anchor Bolts

Bolts used to anchor structural members to a foundation or other support. Usually refers to the bolts at the bottom of columns and door jambs. CSBD does not supply anchor bolts with a building order.

Anchor Bolt Plan

A plan view showing the size, location, and projection of all anchor bolts for the metal building, the length and width of the foundation (which may vary from the nominal metal building size). Column reactions (magnitude and direction), and maximum base plate dimensions may also be included.

Approval Drawings

Approval drawings may include framing drawings, elevations and sections through the building as furnished by the manufacturer for approval of the buyer. Approval by the buyer affirms that the manufacturer has correctly interpreted the overall contract requirements for the metal building system and its accessories, and the exact location of accessories in the building.

Architectural Drawing

A drawing which shows the plan view and/or elevations of the finished building for the purpose of showing the general appearance of the building, indicating all accessory locations.

ASCE – American Society of Civil Engineers.

ASD – Allowable Stress Design.

Assembly

A group of mutually dependent and compatible components or subassemblies of components.

Astragal

A closure between the two leaves of a double swing or double slide door to close the joint.

Automatic Crane

A crane which when activated operates through a pre-set cycle or cycles.

Automatic Welding

A welding operation utilizing a machine to make a continuous, unbroken weld.

Auxiliary Crane Girder

A girder arranged parallel to the main girder for supporting the platform, motor base, operator’s cab, control panels, etc. to reduce the torsional forces that such load would otherwise impose on the main crane girder.

Auxiliary Hoist

A supplemental hoisting unit, usually designed to handle lighter loads at a higher speed than the main crane hoist.

Auxiliary Loads

All specified loads other than the basic design loads which the building must safely withstand, such as cranes, material handling systems, machinery, elevators, vehicles, and impact loads.

Awning Window

A window in which the vent or vents pivot outward about the top edge giving an awning effect.

AWS – American Welding Society.

The organization which has developed the recognized code for the design of structural steel fusion welding.

Axial Force

A force tending to elongate or shorten a member.

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B

Bar Joist

A name commonly used for “open web steel joists”.

Base Angle

An angle secured to the perimeter of the foundation to support and close wall panels.

Base Plate

A plate attached to the base of a column which rests on the foundation or other support, usually secured by anchor bolts.

Base Tube

A continuous member imbedded in the edge of the foundation to which the wall panels are attached.

Bay

The space between frame center lines or primary supporting members in the longitudinal direction of the building.

Beam

A primary member, usually horizontal, that is subjected to bending loads. There are three types: simple, continuous, and cantilever.

Beam and Column

A primary structural system consisting of a series of rafter beams supported by columns. Often used as the end frame of a metal building system.

Bearing End Frame

Also referred to as a “Bearing Hot Rolled” endwall. A Bearing End Frame is a structural system consisting of a series
of hot rolled rafter beams supported by hot rolled columns connected by a series of pinned connections. A Bearing
End Frame is NOT a Main Frame and will not stand alone without some type of additional bracing or diaphragm
action. Often used as the end wall framing of a building. See also Beam and Column.

Bearing Hot Rolled

Also referred to as a “Bearing End Frame” endwall. A Bearing End Frame is a structural system consisting of a series
of hot rolled rafter beams supported by hot rolled columns connected by a series of pinned connections. A Bearing
End Frame is NOT a Main Frame and will not stand alone without some type of additional bracing or diaphragm
action. Often used as the end wall framing of a building. See also Beam and Column.

Bearing Plate

A steel plate that is set on the top of a masonry support on which a beam or purlin can rest.

Bent

The primary member of a structural system.

Bill of Materials

A list of items or components used for fabrication, shipping, receiving, and accounting purposes. Can also be called Tally Sheet or Shipping List.

Bird Screen

Wire mesh used to prevent birds from entering the building through ventilators and louvers.

Blind Rivet (pop rivet)

A small headed pin with expandable shank for joining light gauge metal. Typically used to attached flashing, gutter, etc.

Block or Board Thermal Insulation

Rigid or semi-rigid thermal insulation preformed into rectangular units.

BOCA

Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc.

Bonded Roof

A roof which carries a written warranty with respect to weathertightness for a stipulated number of years.

Box Girder

Girders, trucks or other members of rectangular cross section enclosed on four sides.

Bracing

Rods, angles or cables used in the plane of the roof and walls to transfer loads, such as wind, seismic and crane thrusts to the foundation.

Brace Rods

Rods or cables used in roof and walls to transfer loads, such as wind loads, and seismic and crane thrusts to the foundation. (Also often used to plumb buildings but not designed to replace erection cables.)

Bracket

A structural support projecting from a wall or column on which to fasten another structural member. Examples are canopy brackets, lean-to brackets, and crane runway brackets.

Bridge Crane

A load lifting system consisting of a hoist which moves laterally on a beam, girder, or bridge which in turn moves longitudinally on a runway made of beams and rails. Loads can be moved to any point within a rectangle formed by the bridge span and runway length. Bridge cranes may be top running or underhung.

Bridging

Bracing systems of bracing used between structural members to provide lateral stability.

British Thermal Unit (BTU)

That amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound (2.2 kg) of water by 1’F. (0.56’C.).

Building

A structure forming an open, partially enclosed, or enclosed space constructed by a planned process of combining materials, components, and subsystems to meet specific conditions of use.

Building Aisle

A space defined by the length of the building and the space between columns.

Builder/Contractor

A general contractor or sub-contractor responsible for providing and erecting metal building systems.

Building Code

Regulations established by a recognized agency describing design loads, procedures, and construction details for structures. Usually applying to designated political jurisdiction (city, county, state, etc.).

Building Type

There are two types of Buildings “StandAlone” buildings and “Attachment” buildings.

StandAlone
A StandAlone building is any building in a project that does not attach to any other building in the same project. The first building entered in a new project is always a StandAlone building because there are no other building to which it could attach. A StandAlone building can be added to the project and located so that it does not interfere with other buildings in the project.

Attachment
An Attachment is a building which will attach to any other building in the project. An attachment can be a Lean-to, single slope or gabled building. Attachments can be made Endwall-to-Endwall, Sidewall-to-Sidewall, Endwall-to-Sidewall or Sidewall-to-Endwall. The frames of an attachment that is a lean-to must line up with the building-itattaches-to’s column lines. Any other building type can attach to another building anywhere along the wall to which it attaches.

Building Width

The building width, OUT-TO-OUT of steel dimension in feet and inches. The Building Width is measured form the outside face of the wall girts directly across the building in the same direction the roof slopes to the outside face of the wall girts on the other side of the building. Out-to-out of eave strut for buildings with open walls.

Built-up Roofing

A roof covering made up of alternating layers of tar and asphaltic materials.

Built-up Section

A structural member, usually an “ ” section, made from individual flat plates welded together.

Bumper

An energy-absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel; or when two moving cranes or trolleys come into contact.

Butt Plate

The end plate of a structural member usually used against a like plate of another member in forming a connection. Sometimes called a split plate or bolted end plate.

Bypass Girt

A wall framing system where the girts are mounted on the outside of the building columns. See “Exterior Framed”.

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C

“C” Section

A member formed from steel sheet in the shape of a block “C”, that may be used either singularly or back to back.

Cab-Operated Crane

A crane controlled by an operator in a cab support on the bridge or trolley.

Camber

A predetermined curvature in the plane of its web designed into a flexural member to offset the anticipated deflection when loads are supplied.

Canopy

Any overhanging or projecting roof structure with the extreme end usually unsupported.

Cantilever Beam

A projecting beam that is supported and restrained at one end only.

Capillary Action

That action which causes movement of liquids when in contact with two adjacent surfaces such as panel sidelaps.

Cap Plate

A plate located at the top of a column or end of a beam for capping the exposed end of a member.

Caulk

To seal and make weather-tight the joints, seams, or voids by filling them with a waterproofing compound or material.

Channel-Hot Rolled

A C-shaped member formed while in a semi-molten state at the steel mill to a shape having standard dimensions and properties.

Clip

A plate or angle used to fasten two or more members together.

Cladding

See “Covering”.

Closure Strip

A resilient strip, formed to the contour of ribbed panels used to close openings created by joining metal panels and flashing.

Cold Forming

The process of using press brakes or rolling mills to shape steel into desired cross sections at room temperature.

Collateral Load

All specified additional dead loads other than the metal building framing, such as sprinklers, mechanical and electrical systems, and ceilings.

Column

A primary member used in a vertical position on a building to transfer loads from main roof beams, trusses, or rafters to the foundation.

Component

A part used in a Metal Building System.

Continuity

The terminology given to a structural system denoting the transfer of loads and stresses from member to member, as if there were no connections.

Contract Documents

The documents that define the material and work to be provided by a Contractor or the General Contractor for a Construction Project.

Contractor

See Builder.

Covering

The exterior roof and wall covering for a metal building system.

Crane

A machine designed to move material by means of a hoist.

Crane Aisle

That portion of a building aisle in which a crane operates, defined by the crane span and the uninterrupted length of crane runway.

Crane Class

The different service classes are:

B, which is the lightest usage Service Class.

C, which is a Moderate usages Service Class.

D, which is Heavy Service Class.

For more information about Crane Service Classes, please refer to the MBMA Low Rise Buildings System Manual.

Crane Control Type

There are two control options which are Pendant or Cab operated.

A Pendant Operated Crane has a remote control unit that hangs down from the bridge of the Crane itself to a distance off the floor that provides access for a person on the floor to operate the crane by pushing buttons on the control unit.

A Cab Operated Crane has an enclosure that is located on the bridge of the Crane itself in which an operator rides along with the Crane as it moves along the runway. This enclosure can be on top of the Crane Bridge or suspended from underneath. Cab Operated Cranes are normally heavier usage Cranes that are in use almost constantly.

Crane Girder

The principal horizontal beams of the crane bridge which supports the trolley and is supported by the end trucks.

Crane Rail

A track supporting and guiding the wheels of a bridge crane or trolley system.

Crane Runway Beam

The member that supports a crane rail and is supported by columns or rafters depending on the type of crane system. On underhung bridge cranes, a runway beam also acts as a crane rail.

Crane Span

Horizontal distance center-to-center of runway beams.

Crane Stop

A device to limit travel of a trolley or crane bridge. This device is normally attached to a fixed structure and normally does not have energy-absorbing ability.

Crane Support Column

A separate column which supports the runway beam of a top running crane.

Crane System Type

Top Running (TRE); i.e. Top Running Electric

Top Running Cranes set on top of a crane rail which is mounted on top of a runway beam. The runway beams are mounted on brackets which are mounted on the inside flange of the frame columns. The crane span is along the width of the building, while the runway beams span from frame column to frame column down the length of the building. Generally top running cranes will have a higher capacity and usage than an underhung crane.

Underhung (UHE); i.e. Underhung Electric

Underhung cranes “Hang” from runway beams which are mounted to a bracket on the bottom flange of the frame rafter with the crane suspended under the Runway beam. The wheels of an underhung crane roll directly on the bottom flange of the runway beam from which they “hang”. The crane span is along the width of the building, while the runway beams span from frame rafter to frame rafter down the length of the building. Generally underhung cranes will have a lighter capacity than a top running crane.

Monorail

Similar to an underhung crane, except a Monorail has only one runway beam and no bridge span and is limited to movement in one axis. The runway beam attaches to the bottom flange of the frame rafter in the same way an underhung runway beam does.

Curb

A raised edge on a concrete floor slab or skylight.

Curtain Wall

Perimeter wall panels which carry only their own weight and wind load.

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D

Damper

A baffle used to open or close the throat of ventilators.

Dead Load

The dead load of a building is the weight of all permanent construction, such as floor, roof, framing, and covering members.

Deflection

The displacement of a structural member or system under load.

Design Loads

Those loads specified in building codes published by Federal, State, County, or City agencies, or in owner’s specifications to be used in the design of a building.

Design Professional

The Architect or Engineer responsible for the design of a Construction Project.

Diagonal Bracing

Rods, angles or cables used in the plane of the roof and walls to transfer loads, such as wind, seismic and crane thrusts to the foundation. See Brace Rods.

Diaphragm Action

The resistance to racking generally offered by the covering system, fasteners, and secondary framing.

Direct Tension Indicator

A washer with dimples which flatten when the high strength bolt is tightened. The bolt tension can then be determined by the use of feeler gages to determine the gap between the washer and the bolt head.

See also Load Indicating Washers.

Distance from Sidewall to Center of Runway Beam

The actual distance from the Sidewall steel line to the centerline of crane Runway Beam.

Note: If the distance required will not fit in the module or building width, please contact the Manufacturer’s Estimating Dept. so the dimensions can be checked.

Distance to Ridge

There are 2 sets of input fields for Distance to Ridge. The column on the left is used for Sidewall “A” or”B” (depending on how the building is oriented) and the column on the right is for Sidewall “C” or “D” (depending on how the building is oriented). These input fields will only be active when a Frame Type of Non-Symmetrical has been entered when the building is added to the project. Input the distance from the building sidewall to the ridge in the right column and the software will calculate the distance in the left column based on the building width. Both Distance to Ridge fields will always be calculated and unavailable when the building is added with Symmetrical or Single Slope Frame Types.

Door Guide

An angle or channel guide used to stabilize or keep plum a sliding or rolling door during its operation.

Double Face Tape

This tape is used to hold insulation in place as it is installed. Double faced tape is usually put down on top of the
eave strut, at the ridge line and any insulation roll end laps, also any other places you may need help holding the
insulation in place as it is erected.

Double face tape is provided in 1 1/2″ wide x 180′-0 or 540′-0 rolls everywhere except the west coast. On the west, coast double face tape is provided in 1 1/2″ x 150′-0 or 450′-0 rolls

Downspout

A conduit used to carry water from the gutter of a building to the ground or storm drain.

Drift (Sidesway)

Horizontal displacement at the top of a vertical element due to lateral loads. Drift should not be confused with “Deflection”.

Drift (Snow)

The snow accumulation at a height discontinuity.

Drift Pin

A tapered pin used during erection to align holes in steel members to be connected by bolting.

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E

Eave

The line along the sidewall formed by the intersection of the planes of the roof and wall.

Eave Gutter

A light gauge metal member at an eave, valley or parapet designed to carry water from the roof to downspouts or drains. See also Gutter.

Eave Height

The vertical dimension from the finished floor to the top of the eave strut.

Eave Strut

A structural member at the eave to support roof panels and wall panels. It may also transmit wind forces from roof bracing to wall bracing.

Edge Strip

The surface area of a building at the edges of the roof and at the wall intersections where the wind loads on components and cladding are greater than at other areas of the building.

Effective Wind Area

The area used to determine the wind coefficient. The effective wind area may be greater than or equal to the tributary area.

Elastic Design

A design concept utilizing the proportional behavior of materials when all stresses are limited to specified allowable values in the elastic range.

Electric Operated Crane

A crane in which the bridge, hoist or trolley is operated by electric power.

Electric OverHead Traveling Crane

An electrically-operated machine for lifting, lowering and transporting loads, consisting of a movable bridge carrying a fixed or movable hoisting mechanism and traveling on an overhead runway structure.

End Approach

The minimum horizontal distance, parallel to the runway, between the outermost extremities of the crane and the centerline of the hook.

End Bay

The bays adjacent to the endwalls of a building. Usually the distance from the endwall to the first interior main frame measured normal to the endwall.

End Bay Dimension

Endwall steel line to centerline of first interior frame.

End Frame

A frame at the endwall of a building to support the roof load from one-half the end bay.

End Post

A vertical member located at the endwall of a building which supports the girts. In beam and column end frames, endwall columns also support the beam.

See also End Wall Column.

End Stop

A device attached to a crane runway or rail to provide a safety stop at the end of a runway.

End Truck

The unit consisting of truck frame, wheels, bearings, axles, etc., which supports the bridge girders.

End Wall

An exterior wall which is parallel to the interior main frame of the building.

End Wall Bracing

There are 3 methods of bracing — Rod, Cable and Diaphragm Action — available to brace the ENDWALL for wind forces against the building.

(1) ROD BRACING:

ROD-Bracing uses steel rods of varying sizes arranged diagonally in both directions across a bay to form an “X”. It is located in the plane of the sidewalls and/or endwalls. The “X” will span from column to column. It is used to transfer loads such as wind, seismic and crane thrust to the foundation. If a sidewall must be free of Rod Bracing, and the building will not qualify for Diaphragm Action, a Portal Frame should be used. Rod Bracing in the sidewalls can be replaced by a portal frame. Required Rod Bracing in the roof must remain.

(2) CABLE:

Cable bracing is arranged diagonally in both directions across a bay to form an “X”. It is located in the plane of the roof, sidewalls and/or endwalls. The “X” will span from rafter to rafter or from column to column. Cables attach to columns or rafters using brace grips and eyebolts. The eyebolts go through the webs of the columns or rafters similar to X-bracing. Cable bracing uses Extra High Strength(EHS) wire strand. Wire strand refers to ASTM A475 Zinc-coated Steel Wire Strand, Extra High Strength grade. This is a 7-wire strand consisting of a center wire with a 6-wire layer concentrically twisted over it. Cable bracing comes in (2) nominal diameters, 5/16″ and 3/8″. The cable will be cut to length with brace-grips and eyebolts attached and coiled up for shipment with the rest of the building from the plant.

(3) DIAPHRAGM ACTION:

Diaphragm Action is the resistance to racking offered by the panels, fasteners and members to which they are attached. For 1/2:12 to 1:12 roof slopes, diaphragm action may be used for buildings through 70′ wide. For 4:12 roof slopes, diaphragm action may be used for buildings through 60′ wide. Only Dura-Rib and StarMark wall panels have diaphragm action bracing capability. StarShield, StarTherm and CFW II Panels do not qualify for diaphragm action. X-Bracing must be used. Structural masonry when attached to the Manufacturer’s framing can be an adequate substitute for diaphragm action.

End Wall Column

A vertical member located at the endwall of a building which supports the girts. In beam and column end frames, endwall columns also support the beam. Sometimes referred to as End Post.

End Wall Overhang

The projection of the roof beyond the plane of the endwall.

Endwall Type

The input for Endwalls is separated into 2 columns of data input fields. The column of input fields on the left is used for Endwall “B” or “C” (depending on how the building is oriented) and the column on the right is for Endwall “A” or “D” (depending on how the building is oriented). All of the input for Endwall Type, Column Spacing, etc. in the left column are related to Endwall “B” or “C”, while all of the input in the right column relates to Endwall “A” or “D”.

Post & Beam

Post and Beam endwall framing consists of independent beams (end rafters) and posts (corner columns and endwall columns). Post and Beam endwalls require endwall columns and must be braced by diaphragm action, X-Bracing equivalent masonry, or other means – this type of endwall framing cannot stand, un-supported, by itself. The beams and columns can be cold rolled or hot rolled or any combination thereof. Post & Beam framing requires that both roof slopes are the same and the roof slope is 1:12 or less. See “Post and Beam” in the Glossary for more information.

Bearing Hot Rolled

Bearing Hot Rolled endwall framing consists of independent beams (end rafters) and posts (corner columns and endwall columns). Bearing Hot Rolled endwalls require endwall columns and must be braced by diaphragm action, X-Bracing, equivalent masonry, or other means – this type of endwall framing cannot stand, un-supported, by itself.

All columns and rafters are hot rolled. See “Post and Beam” in the Glossary for more information.

Expandable Frame

Standard rigid frame designed to accommodate future expansion of building. Frame is priced based on future expansion bay size and loading to be consistent with current building end bay size and loading.

Non-Expandable Frame

Standard rigid frame designed to support loading from half of the end bay only. This type of frame is NOT designed for future expansion. An advantage of this framing type is that it does not require X-bracing or diaphragm action, so it can be used as a solution to bracing an endwall with many open areas.

Not by the Manufacturer or Other

An endwall Not By the Manufacturer or Other may be selected for an endwall that will be open for other construction. The other construction must be capable of supporting the remaining structure by the Manufacturer, be independently braced and provide a minimum of 4″ of bearing surface for the Manufacturer’s purlins.

End Zone

The surface area of a building along the roof at the endwall and at the corners of walls.

Engineer/Architect of Record

The engineer or architect who is responsible for overall design of the building project.

Erection

The on-site assembling of fabricated components to form a complete structure.

Erection Drawings

See Framing Drawings.

Expansion Joint

A break or space in construction to allow for thermal expansion and contraction of the materials used in the structure.

Extension Package

Provides an additional 50′ of cable and hardware to extend the point at which the vents can be operated.

Exterior Framed

A wall framing system where the girts are mounted on the outside of the building columns. Also known as Bypass Girt.

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F

Fabrication

The manufacturing process performed in a plant to convert raw material into finished metal building components. The main operations are coldforming, cutting, punching, welding, cleaning, and painting.

Facade/Fascia

An architectural treatment, partially covering a wall, usually concealing the eave and/or the rake of the building.

Fascia

A decorative trim or panel projecting from the face of a wall.

Facing

Available insulation facings are:

PSK-VR (WMP-VR)

Poly Scrim Kraft Vinyl Replacement is a .0015″ thick White Polypropylene Film with blended fiberglass and polyester yarns and an 11 lb. Kraft paper backing. It is the most economical white reinforced facing. It has good strength, appearance and light reflectivity as well as excellent low temperature workability. Water Vapor transmission rate (ASTM-E-96) of .090 Perms. Light Reflectivity (ASTM C-523, illuminant D-6500 = 87%. Cold Weather Workability = 0 deg. F.

FSK

Foil Scrim Kraft is a .0005″ thick Aluminum Foil facing with fiberglass scrim reinforcement and a 30 lb. Kraft paper backing. It has excellent low temperature workability, good strength, durability and light reflectivity. Water Vapor transmission rate (ASTM-E-96) of .02 Perms. Light Reflectivity (ASTM C-523, illuminant D-6500= 85%. Cold Weather Workability = Below 0 deg. F.

PSK-10 (WMP-10)

PSK-10 (Standard Duty)

Poly Scrim Kraft 10 is a .0015″ thick White Polypropylene Film with fiberglass scrim reinforcement and a 12 lb. Kraft paper backing. It is an economical white reinforced facing. It has good strength, appearance and light reflectivity as well as excellent low temperature workability.

Water Vapor transmission rate (ASTM-E-96) of .02 Perms. Light Reflectivity (ASTM C-523, illuminant D-6500= 78%. Cold Weather Workability = 0 deg. F.

PSK-30 (WMP-30)

PSK-30 (Heavy Duty)

Poly Scrim Kraft 30 is a .0015″ thick White Polypropylene Film with fiberglass scrim reinforcement and a 30 lb. Kraft paper backing.It is a moderately priced white reinforced facing. It has good strength, appearance and light reflectivity as well as excellent low temperature workability. It is an excellent Vapor Barrier.

Water Vapor transmission rate (ASTM-E-96) of .02 Perms. Light Reflectivity (ASTM C-523, illuminant D-6500= 79%. Cold Weather Workability = 0 deg. F.

PSP (WMP-50)

Poly Scrim Polyester is a .0015″ thick UV Stabilized White Polypropylene facing with fiberglass scrim reinforcement and a .0005″ thick Metallized Polyester backing. It has excellent strength and puncture resistance. It has a decorative, embossed finish as well as good low temperature workability. It is an excellent Vapor Barrier.

Water Vapor transmission rate (ASTM-E-96) of .02 Perms. Light Reflectivity (ASTM C-523, illuminant D-6500= 80%. Cold Weather Workability = 20 deg. F.

VRP-3

Vinyl Reinforced Polyester 3. (Heavy Duty) is a .0025″ thick White flexible vinyl facing with fiberglass scrim reinforcement and a .00005″ thick Metallized Polyester backing.

Water Vapor transmission rate (ASTM-E-96) of .090 Perms. Light Reflectivity (ASTM C-523, illuminant D-6500 = 87%. Cold Weather Workability = 0 deg. F.

Gym Guard

Gym Guard is a .0015″ thick White Metallized Polypropylene Film adhered to a Fiberglass Polyester Blend fabric weighing 75 lbs. per 3000 sq. ft. It has excellent strength and puncture resistance as well as light reflectivity, making it an excellent fabric for exposed interior surfaces in gymnasiums and auditoriums.

Water Vapor transmission rate (ASTM-E-96) of .02 Perms. Light Reflectivity (ASTM C-523, illuminant D-6500= 85%. Cold Weather Workability = 0 deg. F.

Arena Shield

Arena Shield is a .0003″ thick Aluminum Foil facing adhered to a Fiberglass Polyester Blend fabric weighing 75 lbs. per 3000 sq. ft. It has excellent strength and puncture resistance as well as light reflectivity, making it an excellent fabric for exposed interior surfaces in Arenas where the exposed foil facing is acceptable.

Water Vapor transmission rate (ASTM-E-96) of .02 Perms. Light Reflectivity (ASTM C-523, illuminant D-6500= 85%. Cold Weather Workability = 0 deg. F.

VRR (WMP-VRR)

Vinyl Reinforced Replacement is a triple ply laminate of a white polypropylene film with a metallized polyester film backing and a fiberglass scrim tear stopper. It is an excellent vapor retarder and low temperature workability.

Water Vapor transmission rate (ASTM-E-96) of .02 Perms. Light Reflectivity (ASTM C-523, illuminant D-6500 = 85%. Cold Weather Workability = 0 deg. F.

Fenestration

Design and position of windows and doors in a building.

Field

The “job site,” “building site,” or general market area.

Filler Strip

A resilient strip, formed to the contour of ribbed panels and used to close openings created by ribbed panels joining other components. Also referred to as Closure Strip.

Film Laminated Coil

Coil metal that has a corrosion resistant film laminated to it prior to the forming operation.

Finish Floor Elevation

The defined elevation from which building eave height is measured.

Fixed Base

A column base that is designated to resist rotation as well as horizontal or vertical movement.

Fixed Clip

A standing seam roof system hold down clip which does not allow the roof panel to move independently of the roof substructure.

Flange

The projecting edge of a structural member.

Flange Brace

A bracing member used to provide lateral support to the flange of a beam, girder, or column.

Flashing (Flash)

A sheet metal closure which functions primarily to provide weathertightness in a structure and secondarily to enhance appearance.

Floating Clip

A standing seam roof system hold down clip which allows the roof panel to move independently of the roof substructure. See also Sliding Clip.

Floor Live Load

Those loads induced on the floor system by the use and occupancy of the building.

Flush Frames

A wall framing system where the outside flange of the girts and the columns are flush.

Footing

A pad or mat, usually concrete, located under a column, wall, or other structural member, that is used to distribute the loads from that member into the supporting soil.

Force

The action of one body on another body which changes or tends to change its state of rest or motion. A force may be expressed in pounds (Newtons), kips, or other similar units and may act in any one of the following ways:

a. Compression force: A force acting on a body tending to compress the body. (Pushing action)

b. Shear force: A force acting on a body which tends to slide one portion of the body against the other portion of the body. (Sliding action)

c. Tension force: A force acting on a body tending to elongate the body (Pulling)

d. Torsion force: A force acting on a body which tends to twist the body.

Foundation

The substructure that supports a building or other structure.

Frameline

The centerline location of primary frames.

Framed Opening

Frame work (headers and jambs) and flashing which surround an opening in the wall or roof of a building; usually for field installed accessories such as overhead doors or powered roof exhausters.

Framing

The primary and secondary structural members (columns, rafters, girts, purlins, brace rods, etc.) which go together to make up the skeleton of a structure to which the covering can be supplied.

Framing Drawings

Plans and erection instruction which identify all individual parts in sufficient detail to permit the proper erection and installation of all parts of the metal building system furnished by the seller (also known as Erection Drawings).

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G

Gable

A triangular portion of the endwall of a building directly under the sloping roof and above the eave line.

Gable Overhang

The projection of the roof beyond the plane of the endwall. See also End Wall Overhang.

Gable Roof

A roof which consists of two sloping sides that form the ridge and a gable at each end.

Galvanized

Coated with zinc for corrosion resistance.

Gantry Crane

A crane similar to an overhead crane except that the bridge for carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported on one or more legs running on fixed rails or other runway.

Girder

A main horizontal or near horizontal structural member that supports vertical loads. It may consist of several pieces.

Girt

A secondary horizontal structural member attached to sidewall or endwall columns to which wall covering is attached and supported horizontally.

Girt Bracing

Girt bracing is an option for extra support for the girts. It is used primarily to prevent the girts from deflecting.

Angles:

Sag Angles are located between the girts. They are used in design to help hold maximum girt spacing. They are located in the girt plane and attach to the inside flange of each girt with self drilling screws. Refer to the Manufacturer’s drawing # 17.28.11 for more detail. If Angles are selected for girt bracing, the Builder System will add them only if they are needed to maintain optimum girt design.

Glaze

The process of installing glass in windows and doors.

Glazing

Glass panes or paneling used in windows and doors.

Grade

The term used when referring to the ground elevation around a building.

Grade Beam

A concrete beam around the perimeter of a building carrying an exterior wall.

Grid Line

The centerline location of endwall column locations.

Ground Snow Load

The probable weight of snow on the ground for a specified recurrence interval exclusive of drifts or sliding snow.

Grout

A mixture of cement, sand, and water used to fill cracks and cavities. Often used under base plates or leveling plates to obtain uniform bearing surfaces.

Gutter

A channel member installed at the eave of the roof for the purpose of carrying water from the roof to the drains or downspouts.

Gusset Plate

A steel plate used to reinforce or connect structural elements.

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H

“H” Section

A steel member with an H cross section.

Hair Pin

“V’ shaped reinforcing steel used to transfer anchor rod shear to the concrete floor mass.

Hand Geared (Crane)

A crane in which the bridge, hoist, or trolley is operated by the manual use of chain and gear without electric power.

Haunch

The deepened portion of a column or rafter, designed to accommodate the higher bending moments at such points. (Usually occurs at connection of column and rafter.)

Haunch Brace

A diagonal member from the intersection of the column and rafter section of the rigid frame to the eave member to prevent lateral buckling of the haunch.

Header

A horizontal framing structural member over a door, window, or other framed opening.

High Strength Bolts

Any bolt made from steel having a tensile strength in excess of 100,000 pounds per square inch.

High Strength Steel

Structural steel having a yield stress in excess of 36,000 pounds per square inch.

Hinged Base

A column base that is designed to resist horizontal and vertical movement, but not rotation. See also Pinned Base.

Hip

The line where two adjacent sloping sides of a roof meet.

Hip Roof

A roof that rises by inclined planes from all four sides of a building.

Hoist

A mechanical lifting device usually attached to a trolley that travels along a bridge, monorail, or jib crane. May be chain or electric operated.

Hood (Door)

The metal flashing used over exterior slide door track along the full length of the door header to protect the tracks from weather and to conceal them for aesthetic purposes.

Horizontal Guide Rollers

Wheels mounted near the ends of end trucks which roll on the side of the rail to restrict lateral movement of the crane.

Hot-Rolled Shapes

Steel sections (angles, channels, “ ”-beams, “H” shapes, “W” shapes, etc.) which are formed by rolling mills while the steel is in a semi-molten state.

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I

“I” Beam

A hot rolled beam with narrow tapered flanges. Also referred to as “S” Shape.

ICBO

International Conference of Building Officials.

Ice Dam

A buildup of ice which forms a dam on the roof covering along the eave of the building.

Impact Load

An assumed dynamic load resulting from the motion of machinery, elevators, crane ways, vehicles, and other similar moving forces.

Impact Wrench

An electric or pneumatic device used to tighten nuts on bolts.

Importance Factor

A factor that accounts for the degree of hazard to human life and damage to property.

Inside Clearance to bottom of Beams

The Clear Dimension from the column base to the bottom of the Mezzanine Support Beams.

Inside Clearance to bottom of Joists

The Clear Dimension from the column base to the bottom of the Mezzanine Bar Joists.

Inside Clearance from top of Mezzanine to Rafter

The Clear Dimension from the top of the Mezzanine floor to the bottom of the frame rafters.

Insulation

Any material used in building construction to reduce heat transfer.

Insulation Trim

Support “Z” added, along with the standard support “Z” included with the LTP, to trim blanket insulation at LTP sidelaps.

Insulite

Insulites are molded fiberglass pans providing a 1″ insulating dead air space between the Insulite and LTP. Insulites are designed for use on 2′-6 and 5′-0 purlin spaces ONLY and in low profile (1/2:12 to 2:12) roof slopes only.

Internal Pressure

Pressure inside a building which is a function of wind velocity, and number and location of openings.

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J

Jack Beam

A beam used to support another beam or truss and eliminate a column support.

Jack Truss

A truss used to support another truss or beam and eliminate a column support.

Jamb

The vertical framing members located at the sides of an opening.

Jib Crane

A cantilevered boom or horizontal beam with hoist and trolley. This lifting machine may pick up loads in all or part of a circle around the column to which it is attached.

Jig

A device used to hold pieces of material in a certain position during fabrication.

Joist

Light beam for supporting a floor or roof.

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K

Kick-Out (Elbow) – (Turn-Out)

A lower downspout section used to direct water away from a wall.

Kip

A unit of measure equal to 1,000 pounds (4.4 kN).

Knee

The connecting area of a column and rafter of a structural frame such as a rigid frame.

Knee Brace

A diagonal member at a column and rafter intersection designed to resist horizontal loads.

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L

Lean-To

A structure such as a shed, having only one slope or pitch and depending upon another structure for partial support.

Length

The dimension of the building measured perpendicular to the main framing from endwall to endwall.

Leveling Plate

A steel plate used on top of a foundation or other support on which a structural column can rest.

Lift (Crane)

Maximum safe vertical distance through which the hook, magnet or bucket can move.

Lifting Devices (Crane)

Buckets, magnets, grabs and other supplemental devices, the weight of which is to be considered part of the rated load, used for ease in handling certain types of loads.

Liner Panel

A metal panel attached to the inside flange of the girts or inside of a wall panel.

Live Load

Live load means all loads, including snow, exerted on a roof except dead, wind, and lateral loads.

Load Indicator Washer

A washer for high strength bolts in which pre-tension load can be measured as a function of amount of compression on raised portions of the washer.

Loads

Anything that causes a force to be exerted on a structural member. Examples of different types are:

a. Dead Load e. Wind Load
b. Impact Load f. Crane Load
c. Roof Live Load g. Collateral Load
d. Seismic Load h. Auxiliary Load

Longitudinal

The direction parallel to the ridge or sidewall.

Louver

An opening provided with fixed or movable, slanted fins to allow flow of air.

Low Rise Building

A description of a class of buildings usually less than 60’ eave height. Commonly, they are single story, but do not exceed 4 stories.

LRFD

Load Resistance Factor Design.

M

Main Frame

An assemblage of rafters and columns that support the secondary framing members and transfer loads directly to the foundation. This is also sometimes referred to as a Bent.

Main Framing

The main load carrying members of a structural system.

Main Wind Force Resisting System

A structural assembly which provides for the overall stability of the building and receives wind loads from more than one surface.. Examples include shear walls, diaphragms, rigid frames and space structures.

Manufacturer

A party who designs and fabricates a Metal Building System.

Masonry

Anything constructed of materials such as bricks, concrete blocks, ceramic blocks, and concrete.

Mastic

Any material which is used to seal cracks, joints or laps. Also referred to as Sealant, Caulk or Ropeseal.

MBDA

Metal Building Dealers Association. (See SBA)

MBMA

Metal Building Manufacturers Association.

Mean Roof Height

Average height of roof above ground.

Metal Building Fiberglass Insulation

A grade of fiberglass insulation blanket specifically manufactured for lamination to a vapor retarder.

Metal Building System

A complete integrated set of mutually dependent components and assemblies that form a building including primary and secondary framing, covering and accessories, and are manufactured to permit inspection on site prior to assembly or erection.

Mezzanine

An intermediate level between floor and ceiling occupying a partial area of the floor space.

Mezzanine Floor Height

Mezzanine Floor Height is the distance from the top of the finish floor below the mezzanine to the top of the mezzanine floor construction. If the mezzanine has concrete topping over joists and deck, then the floor height is measured to the top of the concrete.

Mezzanine Floor Thickness

Mezzanine Floor Thickness is measured from the bottom of the mezzanine deck to the top of the mezzanine floor construction. If the mezzanine has concrete topping over joists and deck, then the floor thickness is measured to the top of the concrete.

Mill Duty Crane

Cranes with service classification E and F as defined by CMAA.

Moment

The tendency of a force to cause rotation about a point or axis.

Moment Connection

A connection between two members which transfers the moment from one side of the connection to the other side, and maintains under application of load the same angle between the connected members that exist prior to the loading. Also, a connection that maintains continuity.

Moment of Inertia

A physical property of a member, which helps define strength and deflection characteristics.

Monolithic Construction

A method of placing concrete grade beam and floor slab together to form the building foundation without forming and placing each separately.

Monorail

A single rail support for a material handling system. Normally a standard hot-rolled “ ” -beam.

Monorail (Crane)

A crane that travels on a single runway beam, usually a “S” or “W” beam.

Monovents

Monovents are round gravity ventilators, available for location on or off the ridge line. May only be available with certain types of roof panels.

Multi Gable Building

Buildings consisting of more than one gable across the width of the building.

Multi-Span Building

Buildings consisting of more than one span across the width of the building. Multiple gable buildings and single gable buildings with interior posts are examples.

Multiple Girder Crane

A crane which has two or more girders for supporting the lifted load.

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N

NBC

National Building Code. (See BOCA)

Nibblers

Sheet metal cutting tool.

Newton

SI unit of measure for force (N).

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O

Occupancy

Certain building codes require different “standards” based on the end-use of the building and it’s occupancy class. The occupancy category will determine various Importance Factors for wind, snow and seismic designs. These categories range from “Agricultural” for end-uses similar to farm storage, to “Essential”, for hospitals and other essential facilities. Most metal buildings fit in the default “Normal” category. These are buildings that do not fit into ANY of the other defined Occupancy Categories. Essential Facilities would include Hospitals, Fire, Rescue and Police Stations, Emergency shelters, power generation facilities and other structures having critical national defense functions. An example of Hazardous Facilities occupancy would be Buildings used for Manufacturing, processing or storage of potentially dangerous, flammable or explosive materials. An example of Agricultural occupancy would be Agricultural Buildings, Temporary Buildings and Minor Storage Buildings. High Occupancy is a category used mostly in Arenas, Churches and other assembly type buildings where may be more than 300 people in the building at any one time. In a multiple building complex, where more than one building physically attach to each other, if any part of the complex qualifies for a certain Occupancy, every building in the complex will use the same Occupancy category.

Oil-Canning

The bumpiness or bending found in light gage flashing parts.

Open Web Steel Joists

Light weight truss.

Order Documents

The documents normally required by the manufacturer in the ordinary course of entering and processing an order.

Outrigger

– See Auxiliary Crane Girder.

Overhanging Beam

A simply supported beam that extends beyond its support.

Overhead Doors

Doors constructed in horizontally hinged sections. They are equipped with springs, tracks, counter balancers, and other hardware which roll the sections into an overhead position, clear of the opening. Also referred to as Sectional Overhead Doors.

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P

Panels

The exterior metal roof and wall paneling of a Metal Building System.

Sometimes also referred to as Cladding.

Panel Notch

A notch or block out formed along the outside edge of the floor slab to provide support for the wall panels and serve as a closure along their bottom edge.

Pan Panel

A standing seam panel which has vertical sides and has no space between the panels at the side laps.

Parapet

That portion of the vertical wall of a building which extends above the roof line at the intersection of the wall and roof.

Partition Load

Those loads induced on the floor system by the construction of any walls or partitions, such as framing, sheathing, insulation, doors and any ceilings, lighting and insulation which might be supported by said wall construction.

Parts and Portions

See Components and Cladding.

Pascal

SI unit of measure for force per unit area (N/m2).

Patching Tape

Patching tape is used to cover or “patch” small areas of the insulation facing that have been damaged or torn in the erection process or after it has been installed.

Peak

The uppermost point of a gable.

Peak Acceleration Coefficient (Aa)

Some Building Codes classify certain geographical areas into different “Effective Peak Acceleration” to indicate potential seismic activity. This Aa coefficient represents ground motion at a period of about 0.1 seconds to 0.5 seconds as determined by ASCE 7-95 section 9.1.4.1. The coefficient is taken from a map re-printed in the code book. Interpolation can be used between contours shown on the maps. Please refer to your building code manual or code official for the specific input to this question.

Peak Sign

A sign attached to the peak of that building at the endwall showing the building manufacturer.

Pendant-Operated Crane

Crane operated from a pendant control unit suspended from the crane.

Percent of Snow for Seismic Calculations

This is for the percentage of Snow load to be included in Seismic Calculations. This percentage changes based on the selected Building Code and local site conditions, but generally if the Ground Snow is less than 30 psf, 0 percent is used. Where Ground Snow load equals or exceeds 30 psf, the design snow load shall be included in Seismic calculations, but may be reduced up to 80 percent where consideration of sitting, configuration and load duration warrant WHEN APPROVED BY THE BUILDING OFFICIAL. A selection of “Normal” here sets the percentage to the maximum reduction. This means the percentage of snow included in Seismic calculations will be 20 to 25 percent. If a percentage other than the “Normal” allowed by code needs to be entered, click the “User Specified” radio button and type in a percentage number from 20 to 100 percent.

Personnel Doors

A door used by personnel for access to and exit from a building.

Piece Mark

A number given to each separate part of the building for erection identification. Also called mark number and part number.

Pier

A concrete structure designed to transfer load from the base of a column to a footing.

Pig Spout

A sheet metal flashing designed to direct the flow of water out through the face of the gutter rather than through a downspout.

Pilaster

A reinforced or enlarged portion of a masonry wall to provide support for roof loads or lateral loads on the wall.

Pinned Base

A column base that is designed to resist horizontal and vertical movement, but not rotation.

Pin Connection

In structural analysis; a member connection to a foundation; another member or structure is designed in such a way that free rotation is assumed. A connection designed to transfer axial and shear forces between connecting members, but not moments.

Pitch

The peak height of a gabled building divided by its overall span.

Plastic Design

A design concept based on multiplying the actual loads by a suitable load factor and using the yield stress as the maximum stress in any member.

Plastic Roof or Wall Panels

Panels used to admit light. They are normally of the same configuration as the metal roof or wall panels, and installed in the same plane. See Translucent Light Panels.

Pliers

Staple pliers are used to install the staples when insulation laps or joints are folded and stapled.

Ponding – 1)

The gathering of water at low or irregular areas on a roof. 2) Progressive accumulation of water from deflection due to rain loads.

Pop Rivet

See Blind Rivet.

Porosity

Openings in buildings which allow air to enter during a wind storm.

Portal Frame

A rigid frame structure so designed that it offers rigidity and stability in its plane. It is used to resist longitudinal loads where diagonal bracing is not permitted.

Post

A main member used in a vertical position on a building to transfer loads from main roof beams, trusses, or rafters to the foundation. Also referred to as a Column.

Post and Beam

A structural system consisting of a series of rafter beams supported by columns. Often used as the end frame of a building. See also Beam and Column.

Post (End Post)

A secondary column at the end of a building to support the girts and in a beam-and-column endwall frame, to additionally support the rafter.

Post-tensioning

A method of pre-stressing reinforced concrete in which tendons are tensioned after the concrete has reached a specific strength.

Power Actuated Fastener

A device for fastening items by the utilization of a patented device which uses an explosive charge or compressed air to embed the pin in the concrete or steel.

Pregalvanized

Steel coated with zinc for corrosion resistance.

Pre-tensioning

A method of pre-stressing reinforced concrete in which the tendons are tensioned before the concrete has been placed.

Pre-Painted Coil

Coil steel which receives a paint coating prior to the forming operation.

Press Brake

A machine used in cold-forming metal sheet or strip into desired cross sections.

Prestressed Concrete

Concrete in which the reinforcing cables, wires, or rods in the concrete are tensioned before there is load on the member, holding the concrete in compression for greater strength.

Primary Framing

An assemblage of rafters and columns that support the secondary framing members and transfer loads directly to the foundation. This is also referred to as a Main Frame or Bent.

Primary Members

The main load carrying members of a structural system, including the columns, endwall posts, rafters, or other main support members.

Primer Paint

This is the initial coat of paint applied in the shop to the structural framing of a building for protection against the elements during shipping and erection.

Prismatic beam

A beam having both flanges parallel about its longitudinal axis.

Public Assembly

A building or space where 300 or more persons may congregate in one area.

Purlin

A secondary horizontal structural member attached to the primary frame which transfers the roof loads from the roof covering to the primary members.

Purlin Bracing

Purlin bracing is used to provide lateral bracing for the purlin. It is used to prevent the purlin from rolling.

Angles:

Sag Angles are 1″ x 1″ x 1/8″ angles located between the purlins. They are attached through slotted holes in the Purlin web, then tabs are bent down to keep them from pulling through the web. They are used on wider buildings and roof slopes above 1:12.

Straps:

Sag straps are made using 1 1/4″ wide strapping material shipped in coils. Strap bracing is located on the top flange of the purlin and is attached using a self drilling screw. It is installed before any roof insulation or panel is installed. Sag straps should be used mainly on 1/2:12 or 1:12 roof slopes. Straps can only be used with a Standing Seam Roof with a 1 inch or higher Stand-Off Clip. They can extend to 30′ bays and a roof snow load of 40 P.S.F. They are not practical on steeper roof slopes or very wide buildings as they may require so many reinforcing channels for additional support to not be cost effective.

Purlin Extension

The projection of the roof beyond the plane of the endwall.

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R

Rain Load

Rain Load is used only in the Canadian Building Code. This is the Specified load due to the accumulation of rain water on a surface, resulting from 24 hour rainfall over the horizontal projection of the roof surface. The allowable ranges here are 2.08 P.S.F. to 104.4 P.S.F.

Rake

The intersection of the plane of the roof and the plane of the gable. (As opposed to endwalls meeting hip roofs.)

Rake Angle

Angle fastened to purlins at rake for attachment of endwall panels.

Rake Trim

A flashing designed to close the opening between the roof and endwall panels.

Rated Capacity (Crane)

The maximum load (usually in tons) which the crane is designed to support safely.

Reactions

The resisting forces at the column bases of a frame, holding the frame in equilibrium under a given loading condition.

Reinforcing Steel

The steel placed in concrete to help carry the tension, compression, and shear stresses.

Remote Operated Crane

A crane controlled by an operator not in a pulpit or in the cab attached to the crane, by any method other than pendant or rope control.

Retrofit

The placing of new metal roof or wall systems over deteriorated roofs or walls.

Rib

The longitudinal raised profile of a panel that provides much of the panel’s bending strength.

Ribbed Panel

A panel which has ribs with sloping sides and forms a trapezoidal shaped void at the side lap.

Ridge

Highest point on the roof of the building which describes a horizontal line running the length of the building.

Ridge Cap

A transition of the roofing materials along the ridge of a roof. Sometimes called ridge roll or ridge flashing.

Rigid Connection

See “Moment Connection”.

Rigid Frame

A structural frame consisting of members joined together with rigid (or moment) connections so as to render the frame stable with respect to imposed loads, without the need for bracing in its plane.

Rolling Doors

Doors that are supported at the bottom on wheels which run on a track.

Roll-Up Door

A door that opens by traveling vertically.

Roof Bracing

There are 3 methods of bracing — Rod, Cable and Diaphragm Action — available to brace the ROOF for wind forces against the building.

(1) ROD BRACING:

ROD-Bracing uses steel rods of varying sizes arranged diagonally in both directions across a bay to form an “X”. It is located in the plane of the Roof. The “X” will span from rafter to rafter. It is used to transfer loads such as wind, seismic and crane thrust down the wall to the foundation. Rod Bracing in the sidewalls can be replaced by a portal frame. Required Rod Bracing in the roof must remain.

(2) CABLE:

Cable bracing is arranged diagonally in both directions across a bay to form an “X”. It is located in the plane of the roof, sidewalls and/or endwalls. The “X” will span from rafter to rafter or from column to column. Cables attach to columns or rafters using brace grips and eyebolts. The eyebolts go through the webs of the columns or rafters similar to X-bracing. Cable bracing uses Extra High Strength(EHS) wire strand. Wire strand refers to ASTM A475 Zinc-coated Steel Wire Strand, Extra High Strength grade. This is a 7-wire strand consisting of a center wire with a 6-wire layer concentrically twisted over it. Cable bracing comes in (2) nominal diameters, 5/16″ and 3/8″. The cable will be cut to length with bracegrips and eyebolts attached and coiled up for shipment with the rest of the building from the plant.

(3) DIAPHRAGM ACTION:

Diaphragm Action is the resistance to racking offered by the panels, fasteners and members to which they are attached. Structural masonry when attached to the Manufacturer’s framing can be an adequate substitute for diaphragm action.

Roof Covering

The exposed exterior roof skin consisting of panels or sheets, attachments, and joint sealants.

Roof Extension

The projection of the roof beyond the plane of the endwall.

Roof Live Load

Loads that are produced (1) during maintenance by workers, equipment, and materials and (2) during the life of the structure by movable objects and do not include wind, snow, seismic, or dead loads.

Roof L.T.P.

Roof Light Transmitting Panels (LTP) are WHITE fiberglass reinforced polyester panels that admit light. See Translucent Light Panels

Roof Overhang

A roof extension beyond the endwall/sidewall of a building.

Roof Pitch

Ratio of rise to total width.

Roof Slope

The angle that a roof surface makes with the horizontal. Usually expressed in units of vertical rise to 12 units of horizontal run.

Roof Snow Load

That load induced by the weight of snow on the roof of the structure.

Roof Translucent Panel

Roof Translucent Panels are WHITE fiberglass reinforced polyester panels that admit light. See Translucent Light Panels

Rolling Doors

Doors that are supported on wheels which run on a track.

Ropeseal

Any material which is used to seal cracks, joints or laps. Also referred to as Sealant, Caulk or Mastic.

Rubber Pipe Flash

Consists of a molded rubber cone with an aluminum ring bonded to the base. The pipe flash is field cut to fit around the penetration and the base shaped to fit the panel contour, then attached with roof fasteners and sealant. Pipe flash is available for all roof systems and is UL rated. Other sizes not shown in the Builder System maybe available from the Manufacturer as well as heat resistant versions for flues. Contact the Manufacturer’s Estimating Dept. for pricing or availability.

Runway Beam

The member that supports a crane rail and is supported by columns or rafters depending on the type of crane system. On underhung bridge cranes, the runway beam also acts as the crane rail. See also Runway Beam.

Runway Bracket

A bracket attached to the column of a building frame which supports the runway beam for top-running Cranes.

Runway Conductors

The main conductors mounted on or parallel to the runway which supplies electric current to the crane. Runway Conductors

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S

“S” Shape

A hot rolled beam with narrow tapered flanges.

Sag Member

A tension member such as rods, straps or angles used to limit the deflection of a girt or purlin in the direction of its weak axis.

Sag Rod

A tension member used to limit the deflection of a girt or purlin in the direction of the weak axis.

Sag Strap or Sag Angle

See Sag Rod.

Sandwich Panel

A panel assembly used as covering; consists of an insulating core material with inner and outer skins.

SBA

Systems Builders Association.

SBC

Standard Building Code. (See SBCCI)

SBCCI

Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc.

Screeding

The process of striking off the excess concrete to bring the top surface of the concrete to proper finish and elevation.

Screwed Down Roof System

A Screwed Down roof system is one in which the roof panels are attached directly to the roof substructure with fasteners which penetrate through the roof sheets and into the substructure. Also referred to as a Through-Fastened Roof System.

Scupper

An opening in a gutter or parapet system which prevents ponding.

Sealant

Any material that is used to close up cracks or joints to protect against leaks.

Seaming Machine

A mechanical device that is used to close and seal the side seams of standing seam roof panels.

Secondary Framing

Members which carry loads from the building surface to the main framing. For example – purlins and girts.

Secondary Members

Members that carry loads to the primary members. In metal building systems, this term includes purlins, girts, struts, diagonal bracing, wind bents, flange, and knee braces, headers, jambs, sag members, and other miscellaneous framing.

Section Modulus

A physical property of a structural member. It is used in design and basically describes the bending strength of a member.

Sectional Overhead Doors

Doors constructed in horizontally hinged sections. They are equipped with springs, tracks, counter balancers, and other hardware which roll the sections into an overhead position, clear of the opening.

Seismic Load

Seismic load is the assumed lateral load acting in any horizontal direction on the structural system due to the action of earthquakes.

Seismic Zone

Some Building Codes classify certain geographical areas into different “Seismic Zones” to indicate potential seismic activity. The zones range from 1 to 4 based on the building location. Seismic Zone is mainly used in some of the older Building Codes. The higher the number, the higher the potential for seismic activity. The number itself is taken from a Seismic map in the Code Manual. Most newer Codes use Aa. and Av. coefficient. The seismic zone is used to determine the potential seismic loads on the building and will affect the frame and/or bracing design if seismic controls. Refer to the local Building Code documentation for further definition of the zones and maps.

Self-Drilling Screw

A fastener that combines the functions of drilling and tapping. It is used for attaching panels to purlins and girts and for connecting trim and flashing.

Self-Tapping Screw

A fastener that taps its own threads in a predrilled hole. It is used for attaching panels to purlins and girts and for connecting trim and flashing.

Shear

The force tending to make two contacting parts slide upon each other in opposite directions parallel to their plane of contact.

Shear Diaphragms

A diaphragm is a flat structural unit acting like a deep, thin beam. The term “diaphragm” is usually applied to roofs and floors. A shear wall, however, is a vertical, cantilevered diaphragm. These construction systems can be used when designing a building for lateral loads, such as those generated by wind or earthquakes. See Diaphragm.

Sheet Groove (Reglet)

A notch or block out formed along the outside edge of the foundation to provide support for the wall panels and serve as a closure along their bottom edge.

Shim

A piece of steel used to level base plates or square beams.

Shipping List

A list that enumerates by part number or description each piece of material or assembly to be shipped. Also called tally sheet and bill of materials.

Shop Primer Paint

The initial coat of primer paint applied in the shop.

Shoulder Bolt

A fastener used to attach wall and roof paneling to structural frame. It consists of a large diameter shank and a small diameter stud. The shank provides support for the panel rib.

Shot Pin

A device for fastening items by the utilization of a patented device that uses a powdered charge to imbed the item in the concrete and/or steel. See Power Actuated Fastener.

SI

The international symbol for the metric unit used by the United States (Le Systeme International d’Unites).

Side Lap Fastener

A fastener used to connect panels together at the side lap.

Sidesway See Drift (Sidesway).

Side Wall

An exterior wall which is perpendicular to the frames of a building system.

Side Wall Bracing

There are 6 methods of bracing a Sidewall — 1-Tier Rod, 2-Tier Rod, 3-Tier Rod, Cable, Diaphragm Action, or Portal Frame — available to brace the SIDEWALL for wind forces against the building.

(1) 1-TIER ROD BRACING:

1-TIER ROD Bracing uses steel rods of varying sizes arranged diagonally from the base of one frame column to the top of the opposite frame column in both directions across a bay to form one “X” from the base to the eave. It is located in the plane of the sidewalls and/or endwalls. The “X” formed will span from column to column. It is used to transfer loads such as wind, seismic and crane thrust to the foundation. If a sidewall must be free of Rod Bracing, and the building will not qualify for Diaphragm Action, a Portal Frame should be used. Rod Bracing in the sidewalls can be replaced by a portal frame. Required Rod Bracing in the roof must remain.

(2) 2-TIER ROD BRACING:

2-TIER ROD Bracing uses steel rods of varying sizes arranged diagonally from the base of one frame column to the top of the opposite frame column in both directions across a bay to form a double “X”. In this case, the first “X” will extend from the base of the column up approximately half way to the eave where it will stop and another “X” will start and continue up to the eave. This transition may be adjusted in final design to attach near a girt or strut line. It is located in the plane of the sidewalls and/or endwalls. The “X”s formed will span from column to column.

It is used to transfer loads such as wind, seismic and crane thrust to the foundation. If a sidewall must be free of rod Bracing, and the building will not qualify for Diaphragm Action, a Portal Frame should be used. Rod Bracing in the sidewalls can be replaced by a portal frame. Required Rod Bracing in the roof must remain.

(3) 3-TIER ROD BRACING:

3-TIER ROD Bracing uses steel rods of varying sizes arranged diagonally from the base of one frame column to the top of the opposite frame column in both directions across a bay to form three “X”s. In this case, the first “X” will extend from the base of the column up approximately one-third of the way to the eave where it will stop and another “X” will start and continue up to a point approximately two-thirds of the way to the eave where it will stop and another “X” will start and continue up to the eave. These transitions may be adjusted in final design to attach near a girt or strut line. It is located in the plane of the sidewalls and/or endwalls. The “X”s formed will span from column to column. It is used to transfer loads such as wind, seismic and crane thrust to the foundation. If a sidewall must be free of Rod Bracing, and the building will not qualify for Diaphragm Action, a Portal Frame should be used. Rod Bracing in the sidewalls can be replaced by a portal frame. Required Rod Bracing in the roof must remain.

(4) CABLE:

Cable bracing is arranged diagonally in both directions across a bay to form an “X”. It is located in the plane of the roof, sidewalls and/or endwalls. The “X” will span from rafter to rafter or from column to column. Cables attach to columns or rafters using brace grips and eyebolts. The eyebolts go through the webs of the columns or rafters similar to X-bracing. Cable bracing uses Extra High Strength(EHS) wire strand. Wire strand refers to ASTM A475 Zinc-coated Steel Wire Strand, Extra High Strength grade. This is a 7-wire strand consisting of a center wire with a 6-wire layer concentrically twisted over it.Cable bracing comes in (2) nominal diameters, 5/16″ and 3/8″. The cable will be cut to length with bracegrips and eyebolts attached and coiled up for shipment with the rest of the building from the plant.

(5) DIAPHRAGM ACTION:

Diaphragm Action is the resistance to racking offered by the panels, fasteners and members to which they are attached.

(6) PORTAL FRAME:

A Portal Frame is a small, straight, rigid frame which spans across the bay width at the sidewall. Portal Frames are used in place of Diaphragm Action, Rod Bracing or Cables to resist longitudinal loads where these other bracing methods are not permitted. The Portal Frame will reduce available clearance for wall accessories located in the braced bay. Maximum framed opening height is 2′-2″ below the building eave.

Side Wall Overhang See Roof Overhang.

See Roof Overhang.

Sill

The bottom horizontal framing member of an opening such as a window or door.

Sill Angle

See Base Angle.

Simple Connection

See Pin Connection.

Simple Span

The term used in structural analysis to describe a support condition for a beam, girt, purlin, etc., which offers no resistance to rotation at the supports.

Single Slope

A sloping roof with one surface. The slope is from one wall to the opposite wall in a rectangular building.

Single Span

A building or structural member without intermediate support.

Siphon Break

A small groove to arrest the capillary action of two adjacent surfaces.

Sister Column

See Crane Support Column.

Skylight

A roof accessory to admit light, normally mounted on a curbed framed opening.

Slide Door

A single or double leaf door which opens horizontally by means of overhead trolleys.

Sliding Clip

A standing seam roof system hold down clip which allows the roof panel to move independently of the roof substructure.

SlimLine Canopy

A Slimline Eave Canopy is an extension of the roof framing over the sidewall. Canopy rafters are located within the purlin line.

Slope

See Roof Slope.

Snow Drift

See Drift (Snow).

Snow Exposure

Buildings codes determine the Roof Snow load based on the Ground Snow load and the Snow Exposure. The Snow Exposure is a factor that reduces the Ground Snow to the Roof Snow used to design the building.

Soffit

The underside covering of any exterior portion of a metal building system.

Soil Pressure

The load per unit area a structure will exert through its foundation on the soil.

Snow Load

See Roof Snow Load.

Snug Tight

The tightness of a bolt in a connection that exists when all plies in a joint are in firm contact.

Soldier Column

An intermediate column used to support secondary structurals; not part of a main frame or beam and column system.

Spacer Strut (Crane)

A type of assembly used to keep the end trucks of adjacent cranes on the same runway beams a minimum specified distance apart.

Span

The distance between supports of beams, girders, or trusses.

Spall

The distance between supports of beam, girders, or trusses.

Specifications

A statement of particulars of a given job, as to size of building, quality, and performance of men and materials to be used, and the terms of the contact. The most common specification found in the metal building systems industry is the “Recommended Guide Specifications for Metal Building Systems” published by the MBMA.

Skylight

A roof accessory to admit light, normally mounted on a curbed, framed opening.

Splice

A connection in a structural member.

Spud Wrench

A tool used by erectors to line up holes and to make up bolted connections; a wrench with a tapered handle.

Square

The term used for an area of 100 square feet (9.29 M2).

Stainless Steel

An alloy of steel that contains a high percentage of chromium. Also may contain nickel or copper. Has excellent resistance to corrosion.

Standing Seam

Side joints of roof panels that are arranged in a vertical position above the roof line.

Standing Seam Roof System

A standing seam roof system is one in which the side laps between the roof panels are arranged in a vertical position above the roof line. The roof panel system is secured to the roof substructure by means of concealed hold down clips attached with screws to the substructure, except that through fasteners may be used at limited locations such as at ends of panels and at roof penetrations.

Steel Banding

Steel banding is 1″ wide in 500′-0 coils everywhere except the west coast. On the west coast, steel banding is 3/4″ wide in 1,700′-0 coils. It is generally used to support thicker insulation or across wide purlin spans.

Steel Line

The plane created at the outermost point of the secondary structural members. Typically this point is the outside face of wall girts and the outside/top face of roof purlins.

Stiffener

A member used to strengthen a plate against lateral or local buckling. Usually a flat bar welded perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the member. Large concentrated loads, such as crane loads, usually require stiffeners at the point of connection.

Stiffener Lip

A short extension of material at an angle to the flange of cold formed structural members, which adds strength to the member.

Stiles

The vertical side members of framed and paneled doors.

Stitch Screw

A fastener connecting panels together at the sidelap.

Straight Tread Wheels

Crane wheels with flat machined treads and double flanges which limit the lateral movement of the crane.

Strain

A change in length per unit length. It is the deformation of a body that is acted upon by forces.

Stress

A measure of the load on a structural member in terms of force per unit area (kips per sq. In.) (MPA).

Structural Canopy

A Structural Canopy At Eave is an extension of the roof over the sidewall at the same plane and roof slope. These canopies will have the same roof panel and slope as the building.

A Structural Canopy Below Eave is an extension over the sidewall that is in a different plane than the roof. These canopies will have the same roof panel but can have a different roof slope than the building.

Structural Steel Members

Load carrying members. May be hot-rolled sections, cold formed shapes, or built-up shapes.

Strut

A brace fitted into a frame work to resist forces parallel to its length.

Stud

A vertical wall member to which exterior or interior covering or collateral material may be attached. May be either load or non-load bearing.

Suction

A partial vacuum resulting from wind loads on a building which cause a load in the outward direction.

Suspension System

The system (rigid or flexible) used to suspend the runway beams of underhung or monorail cranes from the rafter of the building frames.

Sweep

The amount of deviation of straightness of a structural section measured perpendicular to the web of the member.

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T

Tapered Member

A built-up plate member consisting of flanges welded to a variable depth web.

Tapered Tread Wheels

End truck wheels with treads which are tapered, the large diameter being toward the center of the span.

Temperature Reinforcing

Light-weight deformed steel rods or wire mesh placed in concrete to resist possible cracks from thermal expansion or contraction.

Tensile Strength

The longitudinal pulling stress a material can bear without tearing apart.

Tension Forces

Forces acting on a member tending to elongate it.

Thermal Block

A spacer of low thermal conductance material.

Thermal Conductance (C)

The rate of heat flow, in BTU’s per hour, through a square foot of material or a combination of materials whose surfaces have a temperature differential of 10F.

Thermal Conductivity (k)

The rate of heat flow, in BTU’s per hour, through a square foot of material exactly one inch thick whose surfaces have a temperature differential of 10F.

Thermal Factor

HEATED 1.0

ABOVE FREEZING 1.1

UNHEATED 1.2

Thermal Resistance (R)

Resistance to heat flow. The reciprocal of conductance (C).

Thermal Transmittance (U)

The rate of heat flow per square foot under steady conditions from the air on the warm side of a barrier to the air on the cold side, for 10F of temperature difference between the two. (BTU/Ft2 – hr – 10 F)

Through Fastened Roof System

A through-fastened roof system is one in which the roof panels are attached directly to the roof substructure with fasteners which penetrate through the roof sheets and into the substructure.

Through Ties

Reinforcing steel, usually in the concrete, extending from one column pier to the other column pier, tying the two columns of a rigid frame together to resist thrust.

Thrust

The horizontal component of a reaction usually at the column base.

Tie

A structural member that is loaded in tension.

Ton

2,000 pounds.

Torque Wrench

A wrench containing an adjustable mechanism for measuring and controlling the amount of torque or turning force to be exerted – often used in tightening nuts or bolts.

Track

A metal way for wheeled components; specifically one or more lines of ways, with fastenings, ties, etc., for a craneway, monorail, or slide door.

Translucent Panels

See Plastic Roof or Wall Panels.

Transverse

The direction parallel to the main frames.

Tributary Area

The area that contributes load to a specific structural component.

Tributary Area Reduction

Building codes allow for the live load to be reduced on the primary framing based on tributary area and roof slope. With tributary area reduction a 20 psf load could be reduced to 16 psf or 12 psf depending on the tributary area and roof slope. Live loads GREATER than 20 psf will NOT be reduced.

Trim

The light gauge metal used in the finish of a building, especially around openings and at intersections of surfaces. Often referred to as flashing.

Trim Collar

26 gauge Polar White trim available to trim blanket insulation around the inside of a monovent for a clean appearance.

Trim Strips

26 gauge, White, 3 1/2″ wide aluminum trim strips.

Trim Strips come in 1,000′ Coils. They are used to cover the folded sidelap seem of the insulation on the interior of the building.

Trolley (Crane)

The unit carrying the hoisting mechanism.

Trolley Frame (Crane)

The basic structure of the trolley on which are mounted the hoisting and traversing mechanisms.

Truss

A structure made up of three or more members, with each member designed to carry a tension or compression force. The entire structure in turn acts as a beam.

Turn-of-the-Nut Method

A method for pre-tensioning high strength bolts. The nut is turned from the snug-tight position, corresponding to a few blows of an impact wrench or the full effort of a man using an ordinary spud wrench.

Turnout

An extension attached to the bottom of a downspout to direct water away from a wall. Kick-Out.

Twist Off Bolts

Bolts with a segment which shears off at a predetermined torque during bolt tightening. These bolts utilize a specially designed wrench for proper installation.

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U

UBC

Uniform Building Code. (See ICBO)

Uniform Collateral Loads

Collateral Loads

A Collateral Load is the weight of additional permanent materials other than the Building Structure, such as Sprinklers, Mechanical and Electrical Systems, Partitions and Ceilings.

Uplift

Wind load on a building that causes a load in the upward direction.

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V

Valley Gutter

A channel used to carry off water from the “V” of roof of multi-gabled buildings.

Vapor Barrier

Material used to retard the flow of vapor or moisture to prevent condensation from forming on a surface.

Ventilator

An accessory usually used on the roof that allows air to pass through.

Vertical Cantilever

A Vertical Cantilever Masonry wall is anchored and reinforced to a foundation in such a way that it cantilevers vertically from the foundation similar to a flagpole. A Vertical Cantilever wall does not require a support beam.

Vertical Span

A Vertical Span Masonry wall is a wall spanning vertically between the foundation and a support at it’s upper limit. A Vertical Span Masonry wall requires a support beam.

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W

“W” Shape

A hot rolled member with parallel flanges.

Wainscot

Wall material used in the lower portion of a wall that is different from the material in the rest of the wall.

Walk Door

See Personnel Doors.

Wall Covering

The exterior wall surface consisting of panels.

Wall L.T.P.s

Wall Translucent Panels are white fiberglass panels that admit light. See Translucent Light Panels

Wall Translucent Panel

Wall Translucent Panels are white fiberglass panels that admit light. See Translucent Light Panels

Web

That portion of a structural member between the flanges.

Web Member

A secondary structural member interposed between the top and bottom chords of a truss.

Web Stiffener

See “Stiffener”.

Wheel Base

Distance from center-to-center of outermost crane wheels.

Wheel Load

The vertical force without impact produced on a crane wheel bearing on a runway rail or suspended from a runway beam. Maximum wheel load occurs with the crane at rated capacity and the trolley positioned to provide maximum vertical force at one set of wheels.

Width

The dimension of the building measured parallel to the main framing sidewall to sidewall.

Wind Bent

See Portal Frame.

Wind Column

A vertical member supporting a wall system designed to withstand horizontal wind loads.

Wind Exposure

To account for the effects of surrounding conditions on how the wind affects a building, a building code may specify that a wind exposure be determined. This exposure classification affects the wind design used to design the building. For the codes requiring an exposure factor or when the local code official does not allow MBMA wind, an exposure factor shall be picked. The wind exposure is dependent on the surrounding terrain and location of other buildings.

Exposure B: Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas, or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions.

Exposure C: Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 30 feet. This exposure includes flat open country and grasslands.

Exposure D: Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to wind flowing over large bodies of water. This is considered the extreme “exposed” environment and applies only to those buildings exposed to wind coming from over the water. Any building within 1500 feet from the shoreline of a large body of water shall be considered in an exposure D. This is different than and does not require the use of a Coastal wind category. A building can be Exposure “D” without being in a coastal wind category. A building can also be in a coastal wind category without necessarily being an Exposure “D”.

Wind Load

A load caused by the wind blowing from any horizontal direction.

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W

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X

X Bracing

See “Brace Rods, Angles and Cables”.

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Y

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Z

“Z” Section

A member cold formed from steel sheet in the shape of a block “Z”.

Zinc Aluminum Coated

Steel coated with an alloy of zinc and aluminum to provide corrosion resistance.

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